Common toad

Bufo bufoCommon or European toad is the largest of the native toads (up to 200 mm). On the upper side it is red-brown and dingy white or yellowish below. Common toads are widespread. They inhabit all types of forests and the steppe, whose southern border also serves as an approximation of the species areal. They can be encountered up to 3000 m above sea level. They are much harder to spot compared to the green toad, whose males announce their presence by a resonant nuptial quaver. In their lifestyles the species are quite similar though, but the common toad dwells higher up north. The common toad comes to water for the purposes of breeding only, spending the rest of the time on land. It hibernates later than the green toad and is inactive a shorter period. The common toad is less prolific, in contrast to the green one: it lays 1200-6840 roe corns. The spawning is also swift, and the toad stays in a water body for a mere 6-8 days. Its larvae escape their shells early in their development, when they barely have the tail bud and the rudiment non-branching external gills which disappear in 8 days. Sexual maturity occurs in the 3-4th year of life, with males maturing sooner. In captivity the common toad can live up to 36 years.

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